Sunday, September 30, 2007

Carduelis
Many, see text
Acanthis Linaria Chloris (but see article text)
The genus Carduelis is a large group of birds in the finch family Fringillidae. It includes the greenfinches, redpolls, goldfinches, linnets, the twite, and the non-African siskins. No species of this group ranges far into Africa (where they are replaced by the related genus Serinus), and the centers of evolution were probably Eurasia and North America, with a secondary radiation in the Neotropics.
The interrelationship of these species is complex and contentious. It is fairly certain that the crossbills are actually derived from proto-redpoll ancestors quite recently, and it was suggested that they should be placed in the same genus, for which the name Loxia would then have priority. On the other hand, the greenfinches (which are apparently the most distinct group) and the redpolls have themselves been separated in distinct genera which might be the best way to express both the actual evolutionary relationships and the evolutionarily significant distinctiveness of the crossbills. The molecular data indicates that the major lineages split in the Late Miocene (Tortonian, roughly 9-7 mya), but it is unable to suggest any one robust arrangement either of the major groups among each other, among the lineages of Carduelis sensu stricto, or indeed among two separate Serinus lineages (Ryan et al, 2004). As only the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence has hitherto been studied (Arnaiz-Villena et al., 1998), more data is clearly necessary.
Here, the species of Carduelis sensu lato are listed according to current knowledge. The genus Carduelis sensu stricto could conceivably be split further, and in this case only the European Goldfinch and the Citril and Corsican Finch (newly placed in his genus) would remain in Carduelis.

Greenfinches
(Sub)Genus Acanthis

Arctic Redpoll, or Hoary Redpoll, Carduelis hornemanni
Common Redpoll, or Mealy Redpoll, Carduelis flammea
Lesser Redpoll, Carduelis cabaret Redpolls
(Sub)Genus Loxia

3 - 5+ species Crossbills
Carduelis group
Linaria group - linnets and Twite
Spinus group - American goldfinches and siskins
American goldfinches
Northern siskins
Neotropical siskins

European Goldfinch, Carduelis carduelis
Citril Finch, Serinus citrinella
Corsican Finch, Serinus corsicana
Eurasian Linnet, Carduelis cannabina
Warsangli Linnet, Carduelis johannis
Yemen Linnet, Carduelis yemenensis
Twite, Carduelis flavirostris
American Goldfinch, Carduelis tristis
Lesser Goldfinch, Carduelis psaltria
Lawrence's Goldfinch, Carduelis lawrencei
Eurasian Siskin, or Spruce Siskin, Carduelis spinus
Pine Siskin, Carduelis pinus
Andean Siskin, Carduelis spinescens
Antillean Siskin, Carduelis dominicensis
Black Siskin, Carduelis atrata
Black-capped Siskin, Carduelis atriceps
Black-chinned Siskin, Carduelis barbata
Black-headed Siskin, Carduelis notata
Hooded Siskin, Carduelis magellanica
Olivaceous Siskin, Carduelis olivacea
Red Siskin, Carduelis cucullata
Saffron Siskin, Carduelis siemiradzkii
Thick-billed Siskin, Carduelis crassirostris
Yellow-bellied Siskin, Carduelis xanthogastra
Yellow-faced Siskin, Carduelis yarrellii
Yellow-rumped Siskin, Carduelis uropygialis

Saturday, September 29, 2007


Marion County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2000, the population was 258,916. The U.S. Census Bureau 2005 estimate for the county is 303,442 [1]. Its county seat is Ocala, Florida.

History
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,307 km² (1,663 mi²). 4,089 km² (1,579 mi²) of it is land and 218 km² (84 mi²) of it (5.06%) is water. It is coterminous with the Ocala Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Geography
Marion County is generally composed of rolling hills, some high and some low. The majority of its trees consist of live oaks, pine, and palm trees. Marion County is considered the southernmost county in North Central Florida, and sometimes the northernmost county in Central Florida.
It is about a two hour drive from many of Florida's major cities, Orlando is 90 minutes to the southeast while Tampa is about 90 minutes to the southwest. Jacksonville is roughly a two hour drive northeast and Daytona Beach is an hour and a half to the east. Miami is about five hours to the southeast as is Fort Lauderdale.
Marion County also has two large lakes at its opposite borders. Orange Lake is in the far northern part of Marion County, near the border with Alachua County. Lake Weir, the larger of the two, is in the far southern region near the border with Lake County.
Marion County is inland, centered between the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the west. Because of this, Marion County is not affected as much by hurricanes as the more coastal counties to its east and west are. However, tornadoes are a major threat to this region of the state. Although Marion County is not near either of Florida's coasts, it is situated slightly to the west. Therefore, it takes an hour to get to the Gulf of Mexico while it takes a half an hour longer to get to the Atlantic Ocean.

Location and Terrain

Putnam County, Florida - northeast
Volusia County, Florida - east
Lake County, Florida - southeast
Sumter County, Florida - south
Citrus County, Florida - southwest
Levy County, Florida - west
Alachua County, Florida - northwest Adjacent Counties
As of the census² of 2000, there were 258,916 people, 106,755 households, and 74,621 families residing in the county. The population density was 63/km² (164/mi²). There were 122,663 housing units at an average density of 30/km² (78/mi²). The racial makeup of the county was 84.16% White, 11.55% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.69% from other races, and 1.44% from two or more races. 6.03% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 106,755 households out of which 24.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.60% were married couples living together, 10.70% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.10% were non-families. 25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.79.
In the county the population was spread out with 21.40% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 23.80% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, and 24.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 93.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.90 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $31,944, and the median income for a family was $37,473. Males had a median income of $28,836 versus $21,855 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,848. About 9.20% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.20% of those under age 18 and 7.40% of those age 65 or over.

Demographics

Municipalities

City of Belleview
City of Dunnellon
Town of McIntosh
City of Ocala
Town of Reddick Incorporated

Fort McCoy
Marion Oaks
Silver Springs Shores
Salt Springs Unincorporated

Public School System

Anthony Elementary School
Belleview Elementary School
Belleview-Santos Elementary School
College Park Elementary School
Dr. N.H. Jones Elementary (Magnet)
Dunnellon Elementary School
East Marion Elementary School
Eighth Street Elementary School
Emerald Shores Elementary School
Evergreen Elementary School
Fessenden Elementary School
Fort McCoy School (K-8)
Greenway Elementary School
Hammett Bowen Jr. Elementary School
Harbour View Elementary School
Madison Street Academy of Visual and Performing Arts (Magnet)
Maplewood Elementary School
Oakcrest Elementary School
Ocala Springs Elementary School
Reddick-Collier Elementary School
Romeo Elementary School
Saddlewood Elementary School
Shady Hill Elementary School
South Ocala Elementary School
Sparr Elementary School
Stanton-Weirsdale Elementary School
Sunrise Elementary School
Ward-Highlands Elementary School
Wyomina Park Elementary School Elementary Schools

Belleview Middle School
Dunnellon Middle School
Fort King Middle School Website - www.Fortkingmiddle.org
Howard Middle School
Lake Weir Middle School
North Marion Middle School
Osceola Middle School
West Port Middle School Middle Schools
Marion County Public Schools Homepage

Vanguard High School
Belleview High School
Dunnellon High School*[2]
Forest High School
Lake Weir High School
Marion Technical Institute
North Marion High School
West Port High School Marion County, Florida High Schools

Government links/Constitutional offices

Marion County School Board
Southwest Florida Water Management District
St. Johns River Water Management District Judicial branch

Ocala/Marion County Chamber of Commerce
Ocala/Marion Visitors' & Convention Bureau

Friday, September 28, 2007


Ice sculpture is a form of sculpture that uses ice as the raw material.
Sculpting ice presents a number of difficulties due to the variability and volatility of the material. Ice must be carefully selected to be suitable for sculpting. The ideal material should be made from pure, clean water for high transparency, and have the minimum amount of air bubbles. Completely clear ice sculpture blocks weighing 300 lbs (140 kg) and measuring 40"×20"×10" (100 cm × 50 cm × 25 cm) are produced by specialized machines from the Clinebell company based in Colorado. Much larger clear blocks are produced by large machines in Europe and Canada or are harvested from ice quarries in Fairbanks, Alaska or a frozen river in Sweden. These large ice blocks must be moved by heavy machinery and are used for large ice sculpting events or as part of an ice hotel. The temperature of the environment affects how quickly the piece must be completed to avoid the effects of melting; if the sculpting does not take place in a cold environment, then the sculptor must work quickly to finish his piece. Some sculptures can be completed in as little as ten minutes if the carver is using power tools such as chainsaws and specialty die grinders. Many people first see an ice carver at work on cruises at sea where ice sculptures are often used in the elaborate food displays. Ice sculptors also use razor-sharp chisels that are specifically designed for cutting ice. The best ice chisels are made in Japan, a country that, along with China, has a long tradition of magnificent ice sculptures.
As various technologies are adapted for use with ice carving, many sculptures are now created largely by machine. CNC machines first developed by Clear Memories and molding systems are now commonly used to create ice sculptures and complicated logos and color effects are now possible using a recent method developed by Derek Maxfield. This art form is traditionally taught in culinary schools using text books such as "Ice Sculpting the Modern Way", Joseph Amendola's Ice Carving Made Easy and Mac Winker's Ice Sculpture: The Art of Ice Carving in 12 Systematic Steps. Descriptions of ice carving techniques and ice carving designs are available on the web in blogs like Ice Carving Secrets. There are also small schools that teach ice carving.

Ice sculpture Cuisine

Ice sculpture Ice sculpture around the world
In China, Heilongjiang Province is the most significant region for ice sculpture. The most famous event is the increasingly popular International Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival held annually in Harbin. The festival has consistently increased in size over the years, with more talented artists involved and more impressive techniques and pieces on show. Ice sculpture decoration ranges from the modern technology of lasers to traditional ice lanterns. The climate of Heilongjiang is very cold and ice is plentiful. Objects of all sizes appear, up to and including building-sized pieces.

China
Since 1989, Alaska has hosted the annual World Ice Art Championships. Nearly 100 sculptors come from around the world to sculpt large blocks of pristine natural ice. The event is run almost exclusively by volunteers.
In a typical year, more than 45,000 spectators pass through the gates of the Ice Park home of the World Ice Art Championships. The competition is broken down into two main categories: Single Block and Multi-Block and each competition is further separated into Abstract and Realistic sculptures. One of the most popular attractions is the Kids Park where children of all ages can glide down ice slides or spin in ice twirly tops.
Typically held the last week of February and the first week of March, spectators may view the sculptors at work during the championship competitions. In the Single Block Classic, teams of up to two persons work on a 3'×5'×8' (90 cm × 150 cm × 200 cm) block of naturally formed Alaskan ice, weighing roughly 7,800 pounds (3,500 kg). In the Multi-Block Classic, teams of up to four persons each receive ten blocks of approximately 6'×4'×3' (180 cm × 100 cm × 90 cm) each weighing about 4,400 pounds (2,000 kg). to create their crystal masterpieces. Teams that compete in both the Single Block and Multi-Block events must handle a total of 50,000 pounds (23 t) of ice. Power tools and scaffolding can be used in both events: assistance from heavy equipment is only permitted in the Multi-Block Classic Competition. Thus, participation in the event requires exceptional strength, endurance, and engineering skill as well as mastery of basic ice sculpture techniques and artistic vision.
The National Ice Carving Association (NICA), based in Oak Brook, Illinois (in the Chicago metro area) is an organization of ice carvers and those interested in ice carving. NICA sanctions and supports various ice sculpture competitions around the United States and in Canada and has held a yearly National Championship since 1991. NICA also was responsible for managing the ice carving competition held in conjunction with the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City and provided support for the most recent 2006 event in Italy.
Perhaps even more important than its to role in ice sculpture competitions, NICA also holds tradeshows and seminars that are designed to educate and inform those interested in ice sculpture. NICA offers resources and information for the business side of ice carving as well. NICA has an elected board of directors and an executive director and produces a newsletter (On Ice) and maintains a website (http://www.nica.org) Many of the world's best ice sculptors are members of NICA and NICA is a valuable resource for those working to be the best.

United States
The Japanese city of Sapporo on the island of Hokkaido is famous for its winter carnival, in which teams compete to create ice sculptures. Some of these creations are the size of multiple-story buildings.
As well as its popularity in Asia, there are many countries in the west famous for their ice sculpture.

Japan
Although ice hotels now exist in several cold countries, the Ice Hotel in Kiruna, Sweden is best known as the earliest. Since its creation in 1989, the hotel has featured in many television travel programmes, magazines and newspapers. With the exception of the beds, the entire hotel is made completely out of ice blocks - even the glasses in the bar are made of ice. The ice is made from water taken from the River Torne. The hotel features more than 60 rooms and suites, a bar, reception area and chapel. It charges around 2,800 Swedish Krona (approx. 390 US dollars) per room per night. The hotel only exists between November and May.

Finland
In Canada, Quebec City, Quebec holds an ice sculpture festival each year during the Quebec City Winter Carnival. The sculpture festival lasts about three weeks. For the sheer variety of ice sculptures and the number of visitors, the Quebec festival is regarded by some as the best in the world. Each year about twenty teams are chosen to participate in the competition. Half of these teams come from Canada and the others come from other countries. Ice sculpting started to become important in Quebec in the 1880s, as traditional sculptors like Louis Jobin turned their skills on this less permanent medium.
In the National Capital Region of Canada the Crystal Garden international invitational ice-carving competition starts every February, as part of the Winterlude winter festival of Ottawa. The competition site has been located in Confederation Park in Ottawa and also on the shores of Leamy lake in Gatineau, across the Ottawa River. There is a solo category, a pairs category and a one-bloc challenge. In addition to the sculptures done in the competition many ice sculptures are made to decorate the many Winterlude sites.
About 10 km East of Quebec city, near Montmorency Falls and within the grounds of the Duchesnay winter resort the first Ice hotel in North America is erected each January. Small and medium sized ice sculptures are used to decorate the interiors.

Canada
An annual competition is held in Moscow's Gorky Park.

Ireland

Ice palace
Snow sculpture

Thursday, September 27, 2007


The "Essjay controversy" was a February 2007 incident where a prominent English Wikipedia administrator known as Essjay was found to have made false claims about his academic qualifications and professional experience in a telephone interview with The New Yorker. Identity revealed

Reaction
Speaking personally about Jordan, Wales said, "Mr. Ryan [sic] was a friend, and still is a friend. He is a young man, and he has offered me a heartfelt personal apology, which I have accepted. I hope the world will let him go in peace to build an honorable life and reputation."
Wales expressed his regret that Essjay had "made a series of very bad judgments." He also commented that he hoped Wikipedia would improve as a result of the controversy.

Essjay controversy Wikipedia community
Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief of online encyclopedia Citizendium,

Wikipedia critics
On March 2, 2007, a report in The Chronicle of Higher Education commented "the incident is clearly damaging to Wikipedia's credibility – especially with professors who will now note that one of the site's most visible academics has turned out to be a fraud."

Essjay controversy See also

Wednesday, September 26, 2007


This article refers to the original incarnation of the Can-Am League, which operated between 1936 and 1951. For the modern league, see Canadian-American Association of Professional Baseball
The Canadian-American League, nicknamed the Can-Am League was a class C circuit which ran from 1936 through 1951, with a three-year break during World War II.

Canadian-American LeagueCanadian-American League League Champions

Bob Lemon, 1938 Oswego Netherlands

Tuesday, September 25, 2007

Supreme Governor of the Church of England History
This royal role is acknowledged in the Preface to the Thirty-Nine Articles of 1562. It states that:
"Being by God's Ordinance, according to Our just Title, Defender of the Faith and Supreme Governor of the Church, within these Our Dominions, We hold it most agreeable to this Our Kingly Office, and Our own religious zeal, to conserve and maintain the Church committed to Our Charge, in Unity of true Religion, and in the Bond of Peace ... We have therefore, upon mature Deliberation, and with the Advice of so many of Our Bishops as might conveniently be called together, thought fit to make this Declaration following ... That We are Supreme Governor of the Church of England ... "
Article 37 makes this claim to royal supremacy more explicit:
"The King's majesty hath the chief power in this Realm of England, and other of his Dominions, unto whom the chief Government of all Estates of this Realm, whether they be Ecclesiastical or Civil, in all causes doth appertain, and is not, nor ought to be, subject to any foreign jurisdiction ... We give not to our Princes the ministering either of God's Word, or of the Sacraments ... but that only prerogative, which we see to have been given always to all Godly Princes in holy Scriptures by God himself; that is, that they should rule all estates and degrees committed to their change by God, whether they be Ecclesiastical or Temporal, and restrain with the civil sword the stubborn and evildoer ... The Bishop of Rome hath no jurisdiction in this Realm of England."

Supreme Governor of the Church of England Church of Scotland

Monday, September 24, 2007

St. Anthony Maria Zaccaria
St Anthony Maria Zaccaria (Italian: Antonio Maria Zaccaria; 1502July 5, 1539) was an Italian saint.
Zaccaria was born at Cremona. He lost his father at the age of two, and was brought up as an only child by his mother. At an early age, he took a private vow of chastity. He studied philosophy at Pavia, and, from 1520, medicine at the University of Padua. After completing studies in 1524, he practised as a doctor in Cremona for three years.
In 1527, he started studying for the priesthood. Because of his already extensive studies and his Christian upbringing, he was ordained in 1528. Having explored his calling for two years, mainly working in hospitals and institutions for the poor, he became the spiritual advisor to Countess Ludovica Torelli of Guastalla in 1530, and followed her to Milan. While there, he laid the foundations of three religious orders: one for men (the Clerics Regular of St Paul, commonly known as the Barnabites); a female branch of uncloistered nuns, the Angelic Sisters of St. Paul; and a lay congregation for married people, the Laity of St. Paul, originally called the Married of St. Paul, and sometimes referred to in North America as the Oblates of St. Paul. The three foundations met regularly and engaged together in various forms of apostolic action. Their aim was the reform of the decadent society of their day, beginning with the clergy and religious.
The Barnabites' main devotions were the teachings of Saint Paul and emphasis on love for the Eucharist and Christ crucified. Since the order criticized what they saw as abuses in the Roman Catholic Church, Zaccaria soon gained a number of enemies, and as the order's founder, he was twice investigated for heresy, in 1534 and 1537. He was acquitted both times. In 1536, he stepped down as general of the order and went to Vicenza, where he reformed two convents and founded the order's second house.
While in Vincenza, he popularized for the laity the Forty-hour devotion--solemn exposition of the Blessed Sacrament for the adoration of the faithful--accompanied by preaching. He also revived the custom of ringing church bells at 3 p.m. on Fridays, in remembrance of the Crucifixion. He left only a few writings: twelve letters, six sermons, and the constitution of the Barnabites.
While on a mission to Guastalla, Italy, in 1539, he caught a fever. Combined with the strict penances he performed, his health waned and he died on 5 July 1539, at the age of 37.
He was buried in the convent of the Angelics of St Paul, the female branch of the Barnabites, in Milan. 27 years after his death, his body was found to be incorrupt. His mortal remains are now enshrined at the Church of St. Barnabas in Milan, Italy. He was honoured as a saint by the Barnabites and others, but his cult was not confirmed before 3 January 1890, when Pope Leo XIII beatified him. The same pontiff canonized him on 27 May 1897. His memorial day is 5 July.
In art, he is depicted wearing the black cassock of the order and holding a lily, cross, chalice and/or host.

Sunday, September 23, 2007

King's Feast
The King's Feast (Dutch: Koningsfeest, French: Fête du Roi) is celebrated in Belgium on November 15, since 1866. On this day, since 2001, the Belgian Federal Parliament holds a ceremony in honour of the King, in the presence of members of the Belgian Royal Family and dignitaries. Federal ministries are closed on this day. Traditionally, a Te Deum is sung on this day as well as a private occasion.
November 15 is the name day of Leopold (in the German liturgical calendar, it is the feast of Saint Leopold) and Albert (in the General Roman Calendar, it is the feast of Saint Albert the Great). King Baudouin in 1951 decided to keep this date, as did his brother King Albert II. During the regency of Prince Charles, the names Day of the Dynasty or Feast of the Dynasty were used, and these names are still often erroneously used nowadays. However it is not the correct name, as was confirmed in a circular letter in 1953.

Saturday, September 22, 2007


Shōgun (将軍 shōgun The tent is symbolic of the field commander but also denoted that such an office was meant to be temporary.

History

Main article: Heian period Heian period (794–1185)

Main articles: Kamakura shogunate and Kamakura period Kamakura shogunate (1192–1333)

Main article: Kemmu restoration Kemmu restoration (1333–1336)

Main articles: Ashikaga shogunate and Muromachi period Ashikaga shogunate (1336–1573)

Main articles: Sengoku period and Azuchi-Momoyama periodShogun Oda Nobunaga and the Toyotomi

Main articles: Tokugawa shogunate and Late Tokugawa shogunate Tokugawa shogunate (1603–1868)
The term bakufu originally meant the dwelling and household of a shogun, but in time it came to be generally used for the system of government of a feudal military dictatorship, exercised in the name of the shogun; and this is the meaning that has been adopted into English through the term "shogunate."
The shogunate system was originally established under the Kamakura shogunate by Minamoto no Yoritomo. Although theoretically the state, and therefore the Emperor, held ownership of all land of Japan, the system had some feudal elements, with lesser territorial lords pledging their allegiance to greater ones. Samurai were rewarded for their loyalty with land, which was in turn, on the liege lord's permission, handed down and divided among their sons. The hierarchy that held this system of government together was reinforced by close ties of loyalty between samurai and their subordinates.
Each shogunate was dynamic, not static. Power was constantly shifting and authority was often ambiguous. The study of the ebbs and flows in this complex history continues to occupy the attention of scholars. Each shogunate encountered competition. Sources of competition included the emperor and the court aristocracy, the remnants of the imperial governmental systems, the shōen system, the great temples and shrines, the shugo and the jitō, the kokujin and early modern daimyo. Each shogunate reflected the necessity of new ways of balancing the changing requirements of central and regional authorities.

See also

Friday, September 21, 2007


Bangladesh Bank Bangladesh Bank is the Central bank of Bangladesh.

History
Bangladesh Bank performs all the functions, which a central bank of any country is expected to perform, and such functions include maintaining the price stability, supporting the economic and monetary policies of the central government, managing the country's foreign exchange and the gold reserve. Like all other central bank across the globe, Bangladesh Bank is both the Government's banker and the banker's bank, a "Lender of the Last Resort". Bangladesh Bank, like most of the central banks of different countries, exercises monopoly over the issue of currency and the banknotes. Except for the 1 and 2 taka notes, it issues all other denominations of Bangladeshi Taka.

Bangladesh Bank Functions
The highest official in the bank is the Governor (currently Salehuddin Ahmed). The Governor chairs the Board of Director. The Executive Staff, also headed by the Governor, are responsible for the day to day affairs.

Organisation
Chairman
Director
Secretary

Dr. Salehuddin Ahmed
Md. Allah Malik Kazemi
Dr. Wahid Uddin Mahmud
Dr. Sufia Ahmed
Siddiqur Rahman Chowdhury
Dr. Hossain Zillur Rahman
Md. Abdul Karim
Jafar Ahmad Chowdhury
K M Jamshed uz Zaman Current Board of Directors
Governor
Deputy Governor
Executive Director

Dr. Salehuddin Ahmed
Md. Allah Malik Kazemi
Md. Nazrul Huda
Ziaul Hasan Siddiqui
Md. Murshid Kuli Khan
Md. Nazmul Hoque
Md. Asaduzzaman Khan
Md. Khurshid-ul-Alam
Khandakar Muzharul Haque
Md. Abul Quasem
Nazir Ahmed Khan
K M Jamshed uz Zaman
Habib Ullah Bahar
Md. Yasin Ali
A.T.M. Nasiruddin
Md. Abdul Matin

Thursday, September 20, 2007


Caudofoveata AplacophoraMollusk Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda CephalopodaRostroconchiaMolluskHelcionelloida † ?Bellerophontida
The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a wide variety of animals that are well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. There are some 112,000 species within this phylum..
The vast majority of molluscs live in marine environments, and are found intertidally, in the shallow subtidal and on the continental shelf, although some species do live in the abyssal depths of the oceans around hot vents. Not all mollusks are marine: two groups, the bivalves and the gastropods, also contain freshwater species. Only the gastropods have representatives that live on land: the land snails and slugs.

Anatomy
There are ten classes of molluscs, eight are still living, the others are known only from fossils. These classes make up the 250,000 and more species of mollusc:
Main article: Evolution of Mollusca
Brusca & Brusca (1990) suggest that the bivalves and scaphopods are sister groups, as are the gastropods and cephalopods, so indicated in the relationship diagram above.
In this phylum's level of organization, organ systems from all three primary germ layers can be found:
All major molluscan groups possess a skeleton, though it has been lost evolutionarily in some members of the phylum. It is probable that the pre-Cambrian ancestor of the molluscs had calcium carbonate spicules embedded in its mantle and outer tissues, as is the case in some modern members. The skeleton, if present, is primarily external and composed of calcium carbonate (aragonite or calcite). The snail or gastropod shell is perhaps the best known molluscan shell, but many pulmonate and opisthobranch snails have secondarily reduced and internalized shells, or have lost the shell completely. The bivalve or clam shell consists of two pieces (valves), articulated by muscles and an elastic hinge. The cephalopod shell was ancestrally external and chambered, as exemplified by the ammonoids and nautiloids, and still possessed by Nautilus today. Other cephalopods, such as cuttlefish, have internalized the shell, the squid have mostly organic chitinous internal shells, and the octopods have lost the shell altogether.

Class Caudofoveata (deep-sea wormlike creatures; 70 known species); now generally recognized as a subclass of Aplacophora.
Class Aplacophora (solenogasters, deep-sea wormlike creatures; 250 species)
Class Polyplacophora (chitons; 600 species, rocky marine shorelines)
Class Monoplacophora (deep-sea limpet-like creatures; 11 living species)
Class Bivalvia (also Pelecypoda) (clams, oysters, scallops, mussels; 8,000 species)
Class Scaphopoda (tusk shells; 350 species, all marine)
Class Gastropoda (sea snails with shells, such as abalone, limpets, conch, etc, and marine snails without a shell or with a reduced shell, such as nudibranchs, sea hares; sea angel, sea butterfly, sea lemon etc; land snails and slugs, freshwater snails, total estimated at 40,000 - 150,000 species)
Class Cephalopoda (squid, octopodes, nautilus, cuttlefish; 786 species, all marine)
Class † Rostroconchia (fossils; probably more than 1,000 species; probable ancestors of bivalves)
Class † Helcionelloida (fossils; snail-like creatures such as Latouchella)
Nervous System (with brain).
Excretory System (nephridium or nephridia).
Circulatory System (open circulatory system - except cephalopods which are closed).
Respiratory System (gills or lungs).

Wednesday, September 19, 2007


An Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) is an emergency responder trained to provide emergency medical services to the critically ill and injured. In an advanced life support (ALS) service the EMT plays a largely supportive role assisting a paramedic like a nurse assists a doctor in the hospital. In basic life support (BLS) services EMT's are solely responsible for the care and emergency treatment of their patients.
Once thought of as an "ambulance driver or attendant," the modern EMT performs many more duties than in the past, and responds to many types of emergency calls, including medical emergencies, hazardous materials exposure, childbirth, child abuse, fires, rescues, injuries, trauma and psychiatric crises. As National Fire Protection Association standards state that rescuers be medically certified, many EMT's are also part of Technical Rescue teams, such as Extrication, Rope Rescue, and Water Rescue. They may be part of an Emergency Medical Service (EMS), Fire, or independent rescue team.
EMTs are trained in practical emergency medical knowledge and skills that can be deployed within a rapid time frame. Patient treatment guidelines are described in protocols following both national guidelines and local medical policies. The goal of EMT intervention is to rapidly evaluate a patient's condition and to maintain a patient's airway, breathing and circulation by CPR and defibrillation. In addition, EMT intervention aims to control external bleeding, prevent shock, and prevent further injury or disability by immobilizing potential spinal or other bone fractures, while expediting the safe and timely transport of the patient to a hospital emergency department for definitive medical care.

Certification
The National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) is a private organization

National Registry
The US Department of Transportation (DOT) recognizes four levels of EMTs:

EMT-B (Basic)
EMT-I/85 (Intermediate)
EMT-I/99 (Intermediate)
EMT-P (Paramedic) Levels of EMTs
An Emergency Medical Technician - Intermediate is the level of training between Basic (EMT-B) and Paramedic. There are actually two intermediate levels, the EMT-I/85 and the EMT-I/99 curriculum, with the 1999 level being the higher of the two. The standard curriculum for EMT-I from 1998 is defined by the U.S. Department of Transportation, but each state may not have implemented or approved this program.

EMT-I/85
The EMT-I/99 level is the closest level of certification to Paramedic, and allows many techniques not available to the EMT-I/85 or below. Some of these techniques include needle-decompression of tension pneumothorax, endotrachael intubation, nasogastric tubes, use of cardiac event monitors/ECGs, and medication administration to control certain cardiac Arrhythmias.

EMT-I/99
In addition to the DOT (Department of Transportation) established standards, some states issue licenses for more specialized levels of training. Other states simply use different names for the above. California uses an EMT-I or "EMT-One" Roman numeral designation which is equivalent to the National EMT-Basic; this should not be confused with the EMT-Intermediate (hereafter EMT-I). New York State has an AEMT-CC (Advanced EMT - Critical Care) certification, which is unique to New York, but almost identical in curriculum to the national standard EMT-Intermediate/99. Part of the reason why New York possesses this level is that it also has an AEMT-I (Advanced EMT - Intermediate) certification which is at the same level as the national standard for EMT-I/85. Michigan recognizes the DOT levels of EMT-B, EMT-I/85, and EMT-P, however they refer to an EMT-I/85 as an EMT-S (Specialist). Oklahoma recognized a similar level, called EMT-Cardiac, until recently; however, that level has been phased out and EMTs certified in Oklahoma at that level have since been trained and certified to the paramedic level or downgraded to EMT-I. Alaska has an EMT-II, which is very similar to the I/85 standard, and the EMT-III, which is closer to the I/99 standard; interestingly a sponsoring physician can broaden the scope of an EMT-III beyond state-defined protocols by providing additional training and quality control measures. This means that additional drugs and procedures (including wound suturing) can be accomplished by an appropriately trained EMT-III. The EMT-III program is a short upgrade program, and does not generally realize reciprocity with other states.
The first-level ALS provider in the State of Rhode Island is the EMT-Cardiac, which is unique to Rhode Island and Virginia (Virginia has recently phased out the Cardiac Tech program). In Virginia, the first level of ALS is EMT-Enhanced, which is unique to Virginia. EMT-Enhanced can start IV lines, perform endotracheal intubation and administer some medications such as D50, glucagon, albuterol/atrovent and in some cases narcotics. The EMT-C is a certification between the EMT-I and EMT-P, allowing the use of more cardiac drugs than the EMT-I, but fewer than the EMT-P. The time and cost of an EMT-C program is generally less than 1/3 that of an EMT-P program, and is much more popular. EMT-C or higher licensure is generally required by Rhode Island fire departments, who provide Emergency Medical Services in the majority of the state.
An ambulance with only EMT-Bs is considered a BLS or Basic Life Support unit whereas an ambulance with EMT-Ps, EMT-Is, is dubbed an ALS or Advanced Life Support unit. Some states have combination "P-B" (Paramedic-Basic) crews that staff ambulances and operate at the ALS level, though additional certification is required for an EMT-B to operate at that level.
EMT-B skills include CPR, first aid, airway management, oxygen administration, spinal immobilization, bleeding control and traction splinting. EMT-B's can also assist the patient in taking their own prescribed nitroglycerin tablets, β-2 agonist Metered Dose Inhalers, and Epinepherine auto-injectors. EMT-I skills add IV therapy, endotracheal intubation and initial cardiac drug therapy.
Some EMT-Bs are also trained in use of the pharyngeo-tracheal lumen ("PTL") or CombiTube advanced airway adjuncts, and the activation of aeromedical assets. In New Hampshire all EMT-Bs as of 2007 are trained in two blind insertion airway devices: the King-LTD, and CombiTube. In addition to blind insertion airways New Hampshire EMT-Bs are trained to perform an advanced spinal assessment which allows them to rule out the necessity of spinal immobilization, apply a 12 lead cardiac monitor for advanced providers, and manage a patient's tracheostomy tube. In the states of Ohio, South Carolina, and Nebraska, EMT Bs are trained using a modified NREMT-B curriculum with the addition of endotracheal intubation (in the State of Ohio however, the patient must be apneic and without a pulse for an EMT-B to intubate[1]). In the state of Tennessee EMT-Bs are referred to as EMT-IV and are trained in the use of IV therapy and the pharyngeo-tracheal lumen ("PTL") or CombiTube advanced airway adjuncts.

Higher Levels of EMTs
Like the responsibilities of an EMT, training programs for certification vary greatly. In the United States, EMT-Bs receive at least 110 hours of classroom training, often reaching or exceeding 120 hours. EMT-Is generally have 200-400 hours of training, and EMT-Ps are trained for 1,000 hours or more. The specifics of education often depend on local rules and laws.
There are fast track programs that can be very intense, often demanding a schedule of 8 to 12 hour days for at least two weeks in the case of EMT-Bs. The level of motivation and the time constraints of the students should be taken into consideration before enrolling into this type of program. Other training programs are months long, or up to 2 years for paramedics. In addition, field time is also required, where the student must complete specific rotations in the hospital setting, and also gain experience on the ambulance under the guidance of an EMS service's preceptor. The number of hours in the field vary depending on the state's requirements and the amount of time it takes the student to show competency in their skills. In-field training can easily exceed the actual classroom hours.
The training of EMTs may take place at Universities, community colleges, technical schools, hospitals or EMS academies. Every state in the United States has an EMS lead agency or State Office of Emergency Medical Services. Many of these offices have Web sites to provide information to the public and individuals who are interested in being trained as EMTs.
Many EMT students and schools used medical and healthcare educational software to suppliment their training.

Education & training
In the United States, an EMT's actions in the field are governed by state regulations, local regulations, and by the policies of their EMS organization. The development of these rules is guided by a physician, often with the advice of a medical advisory committee. A physician acting in direct supervision of an EMT program is referred to as a Medical Director and the supervision provided is referred to as Medical Direction.
In California, for example, each county Local Emergency Medical Service Agency (LEMSA) issues a list of standard operating procedures or protocols, under the supervision of the California Emergency Medical Services Authority. These procedures often vary from county to county based on local needs, levels of training and clinical experiences. New York State has similar procedures, where a regional medical-advisory council ("REMAC") determines protocols for one or more counties in a geographical section of the state. In other areas of the US, a list of permitted actions ("Acts Allowed" list) may be issued by a state or local authority.
Some skills may be performed "by protocol" given that certain conditions exist, "off-line medical direction," or "standing orders." Other skills require the prior approval of a physician by radio or telephone, or "on-line medical direction." Some areas maintain an "Austere Care Protocol" which modifies the level of care provided during communications failures or disasters.
Paramedics (EMT-Ps) receive more advanced education and training, including instruction on pharmacology and the administration of lifesaving drugs; the technique of inserting a breathing tube into a person's lungs as in intubation; and even surgical techniques such as performing a surgical cricothyrotomy and inserting an endotracheal tube.
For example, if air in the chest (outside of the lungs) called a pneumothorax is preventing the lungs from expanding, the chest must be decompressed to allow the lungs to expand normally and allow inspired air to reach the alveoli so that oxygen can enter the bloodstream. This can be treated by sticking a hollow angiocatheter directly into the chest when necessary to save a life
The use of these invasive skills is governed by complex protocols intended to maximize the life-saving value of bringing these skills to the patient in the field while minimizing the risk of errors or additional injury to patients.
PreHospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS), Basic Trauma Life Support (BTLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), Pediatric Education for Prehospital Professionals (PEPP), and Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) are other additional certifications available to EMTs to enhance their capabilities. For some higher levels of care, such as Paramedic or EMT-I/99 (AEMT-CCT) several of these certifications (according to local protocols) may be required before an EMT is allowed to practice.

Emergency medical technician Medical Direction
EMTs may be employed by a commercial, hospital or municipal EMS (Emergency Medical Service) agency or fire department. Some EMTs may be employed by commercial ambulance services providing non-emergency patient transportation, or providing emergency medical services to 9-1-1 emergency calls under contract with municipalities or county governments. Some EMTs may work in clinical settings, such as a hospital's emergency department, while others may be employed in an industrial setting, or for 'home health care' providers.
EMTs may be employed by private ambulance services, sometimes providing non-emergency transportation of in-hospital patients. Many ambulance services provide transport for patients not experiencing an emergency, but nonetheless requiring medically supervised transportation. Such patients may include those being transferred between hospitals, bedridden patients being discharged to nursing homes or hospices, or patients who are to undergo specialized treatment, therapy or diagnostic procedures. Private ambulance services in some districts and towns are contracted to respond to 911 emergency calls.
In many locales, firefighters and some police officers are now also cross-trained as EMTs; the majority of these are EMT-Bs, although a growing number of prospective firefighters earn EMT-P certification in order to increase their chances of being hired. Some large companies, especially industrial facilities, even maintain their own in-house EMTs as part of the plant's firefighting or security guard force. Some colleges and universities train EMTs and host student run EMS in their areas to respond to student medical emergencies.
EMTs may also serve as an unpaid volunteer for a volunteer ambulance service, volunteer rescue squad or volunteer fire department, especially in rural or suburban areas. Rural communities often find it difficult to finance emergency medical services, and recruiting, training and retaining volunteer EMTs is a continuing challenge. This is especially true in small communities since the EMTs who volunteer often know personally the patients they're dealing with. One of the benefits of having volunteers is that they provide medical services for free, whereas a paid company can charge up to $2,000 per trip to the hospital. Experienced volunteers are also valuable as many suburban and rural fire companies who are taking over rescue are not medically trained. Further, it has been reported that in a time of crisis, there would not be enough paid EMS workers to properly staff a major incident. Many of the immediate EMS personnel that responded to 9/11/01 after the towers collapsed were actually volunteers.
In response to recent nursing shortages, EMT-Ps are being increasingly used in the emergency rooms and Intensive Care Units of hospitals, where they can serve as ER technicians or assistants, with varying scopes of practice.
Prior to the Hurricane Katrina catastrophe, in the United States of America, the busiest EMS service per ambulance was New Orleans' Health Department EMS, which responded to approximately 4,000 9-1-1 calls per month, utilizing six ambulances for an entire city of about 450,000 people.
EMTs and paramedics of the New York City Fire Department's Emergency Medical Service Command, along with hospital employed EMTs and paramedics under its jurisdiction, responds to over 3,000 requests for 9-1-1 assistance daily; over 1.3 million calls annually (2003).

Emergency medical technician Paperwork

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

John Jarratt
John Jarratt (born August 5, 1951 in Wollongong, New South Wales) is an Australian actor.
Jarratt graduated from NIDA, the Australian national drama school in 1973. His screen debut was in The Great Macarthy. He also appeared in Peter Weir's Picnic at Hanging Rock in 1975 and Summer City in 1977 with a young Mel Gibson.
Jarratt had the lead role in the mini series The Last Outlaw in 1980, playing Ned Kelly.
In the 1990s, he was a presenter on the lifestyle show Better Homes and Gardens. He had guest roles in Inspector Morse, Police Rescue, Blue Murder, Water Rats and Blue Heelers in the 1990s and 2000's. He joined the cast of McLeod's Daughters in 2001, and left the show in 2006 to concentrate on movie roles.
In 2005, he had a major role in the Australian film Wolf Creek, playing the villain Mick Taylor. In 2007, he will appear in two films, Rogue and The Final Winter.

Friday, September 14, 2007

French Encyclopédistes
The Encyclopédistes were a group of 18th century writers in France who compiled the Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia) edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Like Pierre Bayle (1647-1706), who created the Historical and Critical Dictionary, the Encyclopédistes were part of the intellectual group known as the philosophes. They promoted the advancement of science and secular thought, and supported the tolerance, rationality and open-mindedness of the Enlightenment.
Below the contributors are listed in alphabetical order, by number of articles written, and by identifying letter in the Encyclopédie.

Number of articles
In the encyclopédie the authors are identified by a letter at the end of an article.

(A) - Boucher d'Argis
(a) - Lenglet Du Fresnoy
(B) - Cahusac
(b) - Venel
(C) - Pestré
(c) - Daubenton, le Subdélégué
(D) - Goussier
(d) - d'Aumont
(E) - de La Chapelle
(e) - Bourgelat
(F) - Dumarsais
(f) - de Villiers
(G) - Mallet
(g) - Barthès
(H) - Toussaint
(h) - Morellet
(I) - Daubenton
(K) - d'Argenville
(L) - Tarin
(M) - Malouin
(m) - Ménuret de Chambaud
(N) - Vandenesse
(O) - d'Alembert
(P) - Blondel
(Q) - Le Blond
(R) - Landois
(S) - Rousseau
(T) - Le Roy
(V) - Eidous
(X) - Yvon
(Y) - Louis
(Z) - Bellin
(*) - Diderot
(D.J.) - de Jaucourt
(—) - d'Holbach
(V.D.F.) - Forbonnais
(E.R.M.) - Douchet and Beauzée

Thursday, September 13, 2007


The Kittanning Expedition, also known as the Armstrong Expedition, was a raid during the French and Indian War that led to the destruction of the American Indian village of Kittanning, which had served as a staging point for attacks by Delaware (Lenape) and Shawnee warriors against European-American colonists in Pennsylvania. Commanded by Lieutenant Colonel John Armstrong, this raid deep into hostile territory was the only expedition carried out by Pennsylvania during a brutal backcountry war.

Kittanning Expedition Raid

Wednesday, September 12, 2007


The Geronimo project is a free software application server developed by the Apache Software Foundation and distributed under the Apache license.
Geronimo is currently compatible with the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) 1.4 specification. When compared to other application servers such as JBoss, WebLogic and WebSphere, Geronimo's most distinctive features are its:
Software consulting giant IBM has provided considerable support to the project through marketing, code contributions, and the funding of several project committers. In October 2005, IBM announced a free edition of its WebSphere application server named Websphere Application Server Community Edition suite based on Geronimo.
Other commercial supporters include AMD, Chariot Solutions, Simula Labs and Virtuas.

Modular GBean-based architecture, which allows users to remove unneeded services and build very lightweight configurations of the server
Non-Profit ASF leadership, which provides legal protection, ensures stability across the loss of individual contributors and insulates the project from commercial conflicts of interest
Diverse support community, in which companies compete freely and openly to provide services, with none enjoying any particular trademark advantage Geronimo Application Server History

Matrix of Application Servers

Tuesday, September 11, 2007

Screenplay
A screenplay or script is a blueprint, written by a screenwriter, for a film or television program. Screenplays can be original works or adaptations from existing works such as novels. A screenplay differs from a script in that it is more specifically targeted at the visual, narrative arts, such as film and television, whereas a script can involve a blueprint of "what happens" in a comic, an advertisement, a theatrical play and other "blueprinted" creations.
The major components of a screenplay are action and dialogue, with the "action" being "what we see happening" and "dialogue" being "what the characters say". The characters, when first introduced in the screenplay, may also be described visually. Screenplays differ from traditional literature conventions in ways described below; however, screenplays may not involve emotion-related descriptions and other aspects of the story that are, in fact, visual within the end-product.
For more details on the contents of screenplays, see Screenwriting.
In the United States, the Writers Guild of America (WGA) has final control on who may be awarded screenwriting credit for a screenplay in a union production. The WGA is one of several organizations in the U.S. and worldwide which recognize screenplays with awards.
A script for television is sometimes called a teleplay.

Screenplay Screenplay format
Motion picture screenplays intended for submission to mainstream studios, whether in the US or elsewhere in the world, are expected to conform to a standard typographical format known widely as studio format which stipulates how elements of the screenplay such as scene headings, action, transitions, dialog, character names, shots and parenthetical matter should be presented on the page, as well as the font size and line spacing.
One reason for this is that, when rendered in studio format, most screenplays will transfer onto the screen at the rate of approximately one page per minute. This rule of thumb is widely contested — a page of dialog usually occupies less screen time than a page of action, for example, and it depends enormously on the literary style of the writer — and yet it continues to hold sway in modern Hollywood.
There is no single standard for studio format. Some studios have definitions of the required format written into the rubric of their writer's contract. The Nicholl Fellowship, a screenwriting competition run under the auspices of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, has a useful and accurate guide to screenplay format. A more detailed reference is The Complete Guide to Standard Script Formats (Cole and Haag, SCB Distributors, 1980, ISBN 0-929583-00-0).
Traditionally, a screenplay should be 90-110 pages long. Comedies and children's films tend to weigh in at the lower end.
Screenplays are almost always written using a monospaced font, often a variant of Courier although other fonts are sometimes seen, including those intended to resemble the output of an old battered typewriter such as a Remington Portable.

Television
American screenplays are printed single-sided on three-hole-punched letter sized (8.5 x 11 inch) paper, and held together with two brass brads in the top and bottom hole. The middle hole is left empty. In the UK, double-hole-punched A4 paper is often used, although some UK writers use the US letter paper format, especially when their scripts are to be read by American producers, since otherwise the pages may be cropped when printed on US paper. Despite the use of double-punched paper, it is common to see scripts in the UK held together by a single brad punched in the top left hand corner. This makes it easy to flip from page to page during script meetings and may have something to do with the taller page of A4.
Screenplays are usually bound with a light card stock cover and back page, often showing the logo of the production company or agency submitting the script.
Increasingly, reading copies of screenplays (that is, those distributed by producers and agencies in the hope of attracting finance or talent) are distributed printed on both sides of the paper (often professionally bound) to cut down on paper waste out of environmental concerns. Occasionally they are reduced to half-size to make a small book which is convenient to read or put in a pocket; this is generally for use by the director or other production crew during shooting.
Although most writing contracts continue to stipulate physical delivery of three or more copies of a finished script, it is common for scripts to be delivered electronically via email. Although most production companies can handle scripts in most formats, it is better practice to supply scripts as a PDF file where possible. This is because it gives the writer final control over the layout of the script, which may otherwise vary depending on what fonts and/or paper size the recipient uses to print the script out. The formatting software programs listed at the bottom of this article produce industry formatted standard screenplays in PDF.

Physical format
Screenplays can be written either on "spec" (speculative) or as assignment ("Commissioned"). The Variety slanguage dictionary defines "spec script" as "a script shopped or sold on the open market, as opposed to one commissioned by a studio or production company."

Writing on spec or assignment
Assignments are commissioned by production companies or studios on the basis of pitches from producers or writers, or literary properties they already own. Most established writers do most of their work on assignment and will only "spec" scripts which they think no-one will pay them to write, or if they cannot find assignment work.
There are exceptions: some very famous writers only write on spec because they know that they can get a better price for their work this way. Other writers spec scripts that they care deeply about so that they do not have to bend to the whims of executives and producers.
An assignment may be for an original screenplay, or for an adapted screenplay based on another work such as a novel, film, short story, comic book, magazine article or, increasingly, video game. It may also, however, be for a rewrite of an existing script, and in fact this is how a large proportion of writers in the modern studio system make their living. Rewriting scripts is an art in itself and an extremely lucrative one at that: it is not unknown for trusted writers in the higher echelons of the industry to receive $200,000 a week (2004 numbers) for their efforts. $50,000 per week is not uncommon.
Rewriting is difficult because executives often have very clear ideas about what is wrong with a script, however, they are usually unable to provide detailed prescriptions for ways it can be fixed. This is not surprising, because screenwriting is not the expertise of the executive, but of the screenwriter. The writer is therefore usually expected to come up with a detailed prescription for how the script can be improved, and then execute this in a timely fashion. During the process of choosing a writer to rewrite a script the executives may ask several writers for their 'take' and choose the one who appears to have the greatest likelihood of moving the script forward to the point where it may be greenlit for production.
Before 'going to script' a writer may be asked to write a treatment, an outline, or a step outline describing the script in various granularities of detail. Some writers resist this process and will do anything to avoid it and get down the writing the script itself; others embrace the process and even deliver fairly elaborate treatments, the so-called scriptments. It is fair to say that producers tend to be wary of the former and pleasantly surprised by the latter.

Writing on assignment

Main article: Spec script Spec scripts
Script costs can include adaptation rights, but often story rights are listed separately in the development section of a budget.
The cost of screenplays varies enormously, and there are often many different writers involved, some of which are uncredited. For example, Quentin Tarantino did uncredited rewrites for Silver Surfer and It's Pat (see Jami Berhard's Quentin Tarantino: The Man and His Movies).
Jurassic Park was adapted by the book's author, Michael Crichton, for a large undisclosed sum. His salary for Twister was 2.5 million, but there were many writers involved, not just him.
Out of a $72 million budget for the film Signs, writer-director M. Night Shyamalan was paid $5 million, most of which were however license fees for the story rights. For the film The Village (total budget: $71 million) Shyamalan received $327,500 for all writing costs including the screenplay fees for his production company Blinding Edge Pictures and costs for materials, supplies, script duplication as well as fringes. An additional $7.2 million were payed to Shyamalan for the story rights, almost three times the amount Shyamalan earned for his work as producer and director on the film.
Although the highest paid names are stars and directors and sometimes novelists who get their novel adapted, a good screenwriter can command - and is worth - a large salary.
Total script costs can easily be ten percent of the film's budget but, like other areas of a film, unless the writer is a star, it is unlikely for a big budget film to spend more than 5% in the script department.
For a movie with a script budget of $500,000 that is not an adaptation, written on assignment, the payments might break down as follows (referred to as "300,000 against 500,000"):
The first four payments are paid half on commencement of the writing step and half on completion. The final payment, the production bonus, is paid only if the script goes into production and becomes due on the first day of principal photography. If a script is approved for production before all the steps have been completed, the production bonus could be bigger. This means there may be an incentive for the writer not to drag out the process.

First draft: $150,000
First draft revisions: $50,000
Second draft: $75,000
Second draft revisions: $25,000
Production bonus: $200,000 Script costs
Once a studio has purchased or commissioned a script, it goes through the process of revisions and rewriting until all stakeholders are satisfied and ready to proceed. It is not uncommon for a script to go through many, many drafts on its journey to production. Very few scripts improve steadily with each draft, and when a certain avenue has been exhausted the writer will often be replaced and another brought in to do a rewrite.
Occasionally it becomes impossible to satisfy all such parties, and the project enters development hell.
If a studio decides it does not wish to proceed to production with the script, the project enters 'turnaround'. Another studio may purchase the script from its original owner, but the script is encumbered with the development costs the studio has already incurred. At a certain point, it may simply be uneconomic for anyone to purchase the script, even if it is a very good one. This goes part of the way to explaining why some of the best scripts in Hollywood remain unproduced.

The development process

Main article: Shooting script The shooting script
A screenplay is different from a transcript. A transcript is simply a copy of what dialogue finally appeared onscreen, without regard to the original script, the stage directions or action. A full post-production transcript may also include descriptions of the action on-screen, but since it is generally not written by a professional writer but either a production assistant or a fan, it may not be particularly entertaining to read.
Many published screenplays available at booksellers or downloaded from the internet are in fact glorified post-production transcripts rather than shooting scripts. Transcripts and screenplays often differ radically because scenes are frequently re-ordered or dropped entirely during the editing process. Moreover, actors may change lines or simply improvise dialog, and many directors will make their own changes to the script on the fly during rehearsal or shooting.
It can be extremely revealing to compare a shooting script with the film as finally distributed.

Screenwriting software

Screenwriter's salary
Screenwriting
Storyboard
List of motion picture-related topics
Guide to Literary Agents
Writer's Digest
Act structure (Film)